Külföldi turné – St. Gallen
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: „A Berenice”, K.70
Leopold Mozart 1764-65-ben Londonba vitte rendkívül tehetséges gyermekeit, Nannerlt és a kis Wolfgangot. Az angliai tartózkodás idejéről ismerjük Dr. Daines Barringtonnak a Royal Society számára írott tudósítását a nyolcesztendős kisfiú megdöbbentő képességeiről. A doktor beszámol arról a fellépésről, amelyen a kis Wolfgang különböző zenei műfajokban rögtönzött. Improvizált többek között emelkedett operaáriát is. Hogy a magasztos, emelkedett érzések kifejezésében Mozart már kisfiúként milyen jártasságra tett szert, jól mutatja a hosszú londoni utazás után Salzburgba visszatérve keletkezett két, mitikus-allegorikus szövegre írott hódoló-ária, amelyek közül a második a Berenice. Az áriák a hercegérsek Sigismund von Schrattenbach tiszteletére hangzottak el a salzburgi udvarban – az évkönyvek tanulsága szerint „mindenki csodálatára”.
Ludwig van Beethoven: Piano concerto no.4, Op.58
Beethoven wrote his Piano Concerto No.4 between 1805 and 1807. It was innovative in that the sonata-like first movement starts not with an orchestral introduction, but a piano solo. Even more unusual was the omission of wind instruments in the second movement, with piano and strings in a dramatically charged dialogue. The work was premičred as part of a “mammoth concert” at the Theater an der Wien, alongside performances of the 5th and 6th Symphonies, as well as extracts from the Mass in C. As with the premičres of his previous three piano concertos, the soloist was the composer himself, though this time it was clear that he was hardly fit to perform on account of his deafness. As a result, his student Czerny was to premičre the 5th Piano Concerto.
Johannes Brahms: Piano quartet (Arnold Schönberg’s rearrangement)
Critic Donald Tovey has called the seven chamber pieces Johannes Brahms completed from 1859 to 1865 the works of his “first maturity,” when Brahms synthesized his own style from the influences of predecessors such as Beethoven and Schubert. The Piano Quartet No. 1 in G minor, completed in 1861, numbers among these.
Schoenberg began his arrangement of Brahms’ quartet in May of 1937 in Los Angeles, where he had moved to escape the dangerous political atmosphere in Europe, and completed his work in September of that year. He explained his reasons for choosing this work in a letter to Alfred Frankenstein, music critic for The San Francisco Chronicle, in March of 1939:”My reasons: I like the piece.It is seldom played. It is always very badly played, because, the better the pianist, the louder he plays and you hear nothing from the strings. I wanted once to hear everything, and this I achieved.My intentions: To remain strictly in the style of Brahms and not to go farther than he himself would have gone if he lived today.To watch carefully all the laws to which Brahms obeyed and not to violate them, which are only known to musicians educated in his environment.”
Schoenberg changed none of the notes of Brahms’ original score. The extent to which he adhered to Brahms’ style, however, is open to some interpretation. The arrangement includes a style of chromatic writing for the brass that Brahms did not use, even after such writing became technically possible; brass is also used more heavily to double the melodic line than is typical for Brahms. (Schoenberg is said to have suggested that if Brahms had been aware of such modern scoring he would have used it.) The coloristic writing in Schoenberg’s version of the fourth movement includes decidedly un-Brahmsian appearances by xylophone, glockenspiel, and cymbals, as well as trombone glissandos, brass double-tonguing, and divisi strings. Yet in general Schoenberg’s arrangement makes a compelling case for the symphonic quality of Brahms’ original work.
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